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The Indian languages mostly come from the Indo-European language and the Dravidian language family. The other Indian languages spoken mainly come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages, as well as some isolated languages.

There are hundreds of different native languages in India, and if you count the main dialects, there are more than 1,000. SIL Ethnologue lists more than 400 Indian languages; among them, 24 languages have more than 1 million native speakers, and 114 have more than 10,000 native speakers. Three thousand years of political and social contact have led to the mutual influence of the four language families of India and South Asia.

There is a popular saying that describes India’s linguistic diversity very well: कोस-कोस पर बदले पानी, चार कोस पर बानी (India's spoken languages are changed every few kilometers, as well as the taste of water changed.) The 2001 census only partially proved this diversity. It said that our country has 30 languages, each of which has more than one million speakers. These 30 languages themselves constitute a language window through which we can see 122 languages, each of which is spoken by at least 10,000 people. Limited to dialects in certain regions, many of which are critically endangered.

Indian Languages Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada Malayalam, Odia, Oriya, Bengali, Bangla, Assamese, Urdu, Punjabi Kashmiri, Sindhi, Santali, Sanskrit, Rajasthani, Maithili, Haryanvi, Dogri, Chhattisgarhi, Mizo

How many modern Indian languages are there?

There are mainly two kinds of Hindi language spoken; West Hindi language, which is the native language of the Delhi area, and East Hindi language which is the native language of central UP and East MP; his main literary works are in the Awadhi dialect. The dialect chosen as the official language of India is Khariboli in the Devnagari script. Other dialects of the Hindi language are Brajbhasa, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, and Bihari (Bhojpuri, Maithili, and Magadhi).

In spite of their separate names, the Hindi language and Urdu language are in reality marginally different dialects of the same language. Hindi language’s vocabulary comes primarily from Sanskrit, while Urdu contains many words of Persian and Arabic origin; Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and Urdu in a Persian-Arabic script. Hindi is mainly spoken by Hindus; Urdu is mostly used by Muslims.

The Bengali language is spoken in West Bengal and nearly the complete population of Bangladesh speak the Bengali language; it is derived from Sanskrit and has the most widespread literature of any recent Indian language; Oriya, Bengali, and Assamese are sister languages.

The Punjabi is the spoken language of Punjab, a region that includes parts of the northeast of India and parts of western Pakistan. The sacred teachings of the Sikh religion are recorded in the Punjabi Gurmukhi script. Sindh was always the first to withstand the onslaught of endless invaders, thus absorbing Hindi, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, English, and even Portuguese, Persian and Indian cultures mixed in Sindh.

The Sinhala language is the official language of Sri Lanka; and Romani, the language of the Roma (Gypsies), was initiated in India and has spread all over the world. The Sanskrit language source of the novel is evident in its echoes and grammar. Gujarati, Oriya Bengali, and Assamese languages have individual script structures derived from Devanagari.

What are Dravidian languages and its dialects?

An estimated 169 million people speak about 23 Dravidian languages, mostly in South India. The 4 main Dravidian languages are recognized as the official languages of the state: Tamil language in Tamil Nadu, Telugu language in Andhra Pradesh, Kannada (Canarian) language in Mysore, and Malayalam language in Kerala.

They have a long literary history and are written in their individual scripts. The Telugu language is spoken by maximum of the people; Tamil has ironic literature, is considered extremely ancient, and is spoken in the widest areas, including northwestern Sri Lanka.

Other Dravidian languages have fewer speakers and are largely oral. We borrow words from the Indian languages, especially from Sanskrit. Conversely, the Indian languages have adopted Dravidian sounds and grammatical structures.

What are the Official Languages of India?

English and Hindi are the official languages of India. Besides that, the Indian Constitution identifies 18 national languages used in schools and official communication: Bengali, Assamese, Gujarati, Kannada, Hindi, Konkani, Kashmiri, Meithei also known as Meetei and Manipuri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Nepali, Punjabi, Sindhi, Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil, and Urdu languages. These all regional languages are accepted as the official languages of the federal states. In many cases, national borders are drawn between language boundaries.

Language Domains

A comprehensive homework of the regions of the various languages vocalized in India helps to understand the historical developments that led to their geographic distribution and concentration. It is also helpful to determine the basic elements of Indian language geography. it summarizes the historical process that led to the development of Indian language regions.

Evidently, the Aryans arrived last, followed by Dravians, Tibetans, and Austrians, but the chronological order in which the various families affected the situation in India is not clear. Part of this question is which comes first? Austro-Asiatic, Sino-Tibetan, or Dravidian? The Vedic Aryans know Mongolians who speak Tibetan, and they call it Kirata. Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, Mahabharata, and Manu Samhita also stated Kiratas.

Austro-Asiatic Languages

The province of the Austro-Asiatic language was observed in central India, covering from West Bengal to Maharashtra. Kassi’s and Nicobar’s regions are located on Meghalaya and Nicobar respectively. Santali is the most important language in the world. Santali speakers are mainly spread in Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa. About half of them live in Bihar, West Bengal, and Odisha. In the 1991 census, Assam, with 135,000 residents, also declared Santali as their mother tongue.

One more important language; million of people speak is the Mundari language, Mundari language speakers live in Bihar, and a few percent in West Bengal, and Orissa. The areas of Savara, Korku, and Kharia cover Bihar, Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh. However, most of Savara's speakers are limited to Orissa.

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Tibeto-Burman Language Family

How many languages does Tibeto-Burman have?

The territory of the Tibetan-Burman language is mainly bounded by the Himalayas, extending from Baltistan and Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh and to other Northeast states. The family lives on the hills of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Sikkim. However, Tibetan speakers are more common because they are common in many states in India. The languages of the North Assamese branch of the Tibetan-Burman group include Miri/Mihin and Adi.

Over 97% of Adi speakers are limited to Arunachal Pradesh, while on the other hand, Miri/Mihin speakers are limited to Assam. Among the languages of the Bodo language family, Bodo is a characteristic of Assam, and 97% of the people live there.

Over 97% of Adi speakers are limited to Arunachal Pradesh, while on the other hand, Miri/ Mishing speakers are limited to Assam. Among the languages of the Bodo language family, Bodo is a characteristic of Assam, and 97% of the people live there. The properties of Garo and Triple are in Meghalaya and Tripura respectively.

Its speakers are mainly concentrated in Assam and Meghalaya; however, a small number of Rabha speakers also live in the northern part of West Bengal. Similarly, Koch is limited to Meghalaya and Assam, Dimasa is limited to Assam and Nagaland, and Lalung is specific. Most of the language areas of the Naga language group are divided between Nagaland and Manipur. Angami, Lotha, Pochuri, Phom, Yimchingure, and Khimnungan are unique to Nagaland, while Kabui and Tangkhul are unique to Manipur. On the other hand, Kheja and Mao are spoken in Manipur and Nagaland, but a small number of speakers can also be found in Assam.

Kuki-chin language is spoken in Mizoram and Manipur. Manipur is located in the middle of the Manipur Valley, where 87% of the speakers live. A community of the Manipur population (about 10%) also moved to Assam. People who speak Manipur have also been found in Tripura, Nagaland, and other parts of the Northeast, although the number is small. Lushai is limited to Mizoram. Manipur is an example of linguistic diversity. Actually, the state has many language societies that have their place in the Kuki-chin and Naga communities.

These dialects include Tado, Paite, Halam, Hmar, Kabui, Tangkul, Gangte, Kheja, Kom, Kuki, Liangmei, Lushai, Mao, Maram, Maring, Wafei, Zeliang, Zemi, and Zau. Manipur can be chosen as an example to illustrate the regionality of minority language groups in adjacent geographic areas. Manipur State exhibits a complex pattern of ethnic diversity, with each ethnic or dialect group concentrated in its own overall world.