Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. 64 million people use it as the first language in Pakistan and India, and 94 million people use it as the second language in Pakistan, and the main urban centres of the Gulf States and Saudi Arabia. There are large numbers of Urdu-speaking diaspora in Britain, the United States, Canada, Norway and Australia.
Urdū is one of the 22 official languages of India and has official status in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh, where it is used in government administration and as the language of instruction in elementary schools. In India, Muslims often speak Urdu while Hindus often speak Hindi. There are several thousand Urdū daily newspapers in India. There are Urdu schools with their own curriculum.
Although India and Pakistan became independent from England in 1947, English continues to play such an important social and educational role that teaching English is a prerequisite for social status in both countries. English remains the only university language in almost all areas of education. Learning and changing codes between Hindi / Urdū and English is particularly widespread among the educated elite. English remains a necessity for Pakistan, a country where the majority of the people speak Punjabi and a variety of other languages are used in Pakistan Daily basis.
The Hindi name is of Persian creation. The Persians utilize it for the Indian speakers’ languages. Scholars assume that Hindi developed in the 8th-10th centuries, and Hindi is developed from Khari Boli in the 18th century, spoken in Delhi and adopted by Muslim occupiers to communicate with them. Over time, it developed into a variety called Urdū (from Turkish ordu camp), which was set apart by numerous loanwords from Persian and Arabic and became a literary language. Meanwhile, the native language remained relatively free of loanwords from Persian and Arabic, and instead borrowed words and literary conventions from Sanskrit. That language became Hindi.
Because of these different influences, Hindi is written in Sanskrit, with most of its vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu is written in Persian-Arabic script, with most of its vocabulary from Persian and Arabic. In many relatively minor aspects of its sound system and grammar. Since the 12th century, both Hindi and Urdu have been used as literary languages.
Hindi and Urdu have a common slang form called Hindustani. Hindustani never gained literary language status, although Mahatma Gandhi used it as a symbol of national unity in India's struggle for independence from Britain.
Urdu is usually divided into four mutually understandable dialects, most of which are understood by Hindi speakers: • Dakhini is spoken in Maharashtra state and around Hyderabad in India. It has fewer words in Persian and Arabic than standard Urdu. • Pinjari language is spoken by Pinjara cast of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat and Rajasthan in India. • Modern Urdū is spoken in the big cities, like Delhi, Lucknow, Karachi and Lahore. • Rehta is the language of Urdu poetry.
Urdu is a highly flexed language. It uses prefixes and suffixes to form words and express grammatical relationships. Use postpositions instead of prepositions to express different case relations. Oblique nouns are required for positions. The word order in Urdu is very strange. Usually Subject-Object-Verb modifiers appear before the nouns they change.
Due to the influence of Arabic, Urdu borrows most of the formal and technical vocabulary from Persian and Arabic. Generally speaking, Persian words like mard "person" are considered more formal than Hindi words like udmi "person". Like Hindi, Urdu borrows a lot of words from English. If you want to read more click here.
Urdu uses concatenation and repetition to form new words. Therefore, compound nouns are very common. In addition, there are many onomatopoeias, and many of them are repetitive.
Below are a few basic words and phrases in Urdu.
Hello --> Assalām-o-alaikum
Good bye --> Alwidāh
Thank you --> Shukriya
Excuse me, I am sorry --> Māf kījiye
Yes --> Jī han
No --> Jī nahīn
Man --> ādmi, mard
Woman --> Oarat
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