Sanskrit, which means 'perfection', is one of the oldest human languages. Until the second millennium BC known as the "mother of all languages", it is the supreme classical language of the Indian subcontinent and one of the 22 official languages of India; it is also the ritual language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Scholars distinguish between Vedic Sanskrit and its offspring, Classical Sanskrit, but these two varieties are very similar and conflict with mainly in a few points of phonetics, grammar and vocabulary. Originally, Sanskrit was not viewed as a separate language, but rather as a refined form of speech, a sign of status and education that was studied and used by Brahmins. It existed along the spoken vernacular languages called Prakrit, which later developed into modern Indo-Aryan languages.
In India and Southeast Asia, Sanskrit language has a similar status just as the status of Greek and Latin language in the western world. According to the 2001 census published in the Ethnologue, it is used as a mother tongue by 14,100 in India and by 15,770 worldwide, and 194,000 as a second language in India. While it is not a spoken language, so great is its importance that it is one of the 22 official languages of India. As an essential part of Hindu tradition and philosophy, Sanskrit is mainly used today as the ceremonious language in Hindu religious rituals. It is a mandatory subject in many schools.
The Sanskrit language has greatly influenced all languages and civilizations of the Indian subcontinent and beyond. Sanskrit mantras are recited by millions of Hindus, and most temple functions are performed entirely in spoken Sanskrit, often in Vedic form. Languages such as Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati and Marathi contain heavy Sanskrit vocabulary.
Currently, a lot of efforts have been done to revitalize Sanskrit as a spoken language so that all people can read the rich Sanskrit writings easily. The Central Council of Secondary Education of India has made Sanskrit the third language in academic classes under its administration. Sanskrit is a mandatory language in 5th to 8th classes; for 9th and 10th classes there is a choice between Sanskrit and Hindi, students can choose any one of them; many organizations conduct “Speaking Sanskrit” workshops to generalize the language. Sanskrit is the language of the two main Hindu myths, Ramayana and Mahabharata, which are read by people all over the world.
The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is the normative grammar of classical Sanskrit from Panini eight chapters, dating from about 500 BC. His rules helped to systematize Sanskrit grammar.
Sanskrit is a highly scalar language that uses prefixes, suffixes, affixes, and repetitions to form words and denote grammatical categories. Many of these categories have been lost or simplified in modern Indo-Aryan languages. The usual word order in Sanskrit sentences puts the verb last, but there are fewer restrictions on the order of other components of the sentence.
The Sanskrit dictionary mainly consists of words of common Indo-European origin. They can be formed by combining and copying, for example, matara-pitara "mother [and] father", dive-dive "day after day". Some compound words can be very long. To know more about Sanskrit click here.
Below are a few common words and phrases in Sanskrit.
Hello --> namaste, नमस्ते
Goodbye --> punarmilāmah, पुनर्मिलाम
Please --> kripayā, कृपया
Thank you --> dhanyawādāh, धन्यवादाः
Yes --> astu, अस्तु
No --> ma, मा; na न
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