Rajasthani (राजस्थानी/راجستھاني) is a western Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 80 million people. It is spoken primarily in Rajasthan and the neighbouring states of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab in India, as well as parts of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan. Rajasthani originated from a language spoken between 1100 and 1500 AD in Gujarat and Rajasthan and was known as Old Gujarati, Maru Gurjar, Maruwani, or Gujar Bhakha.
Rajasthani was considered a dialect of Hindi in the 19th and early 20th centuries, now it is considered a separate language and recognized by the government of Rajasthan as a state language. Rajasthani is written in the Devanagari alphabet in India and the Persian Arabic alphabet in Pakistan.
There are many dialects of Rajasthani language. Some dialects of Rajasthani differ significantly from others and are considered to be some separate languages. We are showing 14 dialects and its definition as below:
Marwari: The first dialect of Rajasthan is Marwari, this was a Mahajani script, but now it is written by a Devanagari script. The Perso-Arab script is a Marwari script in Pakistan. It is assumed that, Gujarati and Marwari are descended from Maru-Gurjar or Gujjar-Bhakha, the language of the Gurjars.
Mewari: People in the southeast of Mewar speak Mewari, It is a form of the Marwari dialect. Districts belonging to this dialect: Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur and Bhilwara.
Dhundhari/Jaipuri: The Dhundhari or Jaipuri is the other dialect of Rajasthan written in Devanagari, which is a most common dialect of the Jaipur, Kota, Ajmer, Bundi and parts of Kishangarh districts.
Harauti: The Dhundhari dialect is spoken mainly in the Kota and Bundi regions; however, in these regions people also speak Harauti. Harauti is also spoken in Baran, Jhalawar and the respective regions of Madhya Pradesh. All these areas together form the historic Khadoti.
Mewati: British geographer James Rennell exposed the first use of the Mewati dialect. In the northeast of Jaipur, the Alwar region and its surroundings speak Mewati dialect. Originally, Mewati was the language of Mewat. Mewati is similar to Braja Bhasa, a dialect widespread in Bharatpur.
Gujari: The Indians and Gujjars / Gujars of northern Pakistan speak the Gujari language. Mainly, the government of Jammu and Kashmir has accepted this dialect, and the Constitution of the region includes the Gujari in the sixth list. In short, various historians and scholars assume that the Gujari is the source dialect of Rajasthani.
Ahirwati: The Yaduvanshi Ahirs, widespread in the Ahirwal region, use Ahirwati dialect. It is generally believed to be part of the Mewati dialect. However, it is similar and related to the Shekhavati dialect. It's the same with Bagri and Bangru. Ahirwati has no specific scenario. Depending on your region, it is spelled in Devanagari, Persian Arabic, or Gurmukhi.
Wagdi: The scheduled tribe, Bhil, is the origin of the name Wagdi. Bhili speakers consider themselves to be native speakers of the Wagdi language. states of Wagdi are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. In Rajasthan, the areas with the most Wagdi speakers are Dungarpur, Banswara and Udaipur.
Lambadi: The Lambadi dialect comes from the people of the Banjara tribe, who were nomads that travelled around India. It is a spoken language and does not have a native alphabet. For Banjara Maharashtra, this dialect is included in the Devanagari script. The script changed to Kannada and Telugu correspond to the regions from Karnataka to Tamil Nadu and Telangana.
Malvi: First of all, the Malwa section of India follows the Malvi dialect. Second, this area consists of Bhopal, Mandsor, Indore and Ujjain. The southern parts of Rajasthan generally speak Jaipuri and Malvi. Although dialects such as Marwari and Dhundhari originated in Rajasthan, Malvi originated outside the state by the Malwa tribe.
Bagri: In Rajasthan, Bagri is very popular in its northern regions. In addition, people from southern Punjab and northwestern Haryana also speak Bagri. It also gets its name from the northwestern region of India, Bagar area. The dialect differs only slightly from the language spoken in the neighbouring regions of Haryana and Punjab. Thus, Bagri acts as a dialectal bridge between the two states and Rajasthan.
Thali/Dhatak: This is very similar to the Marwari dialect. Most of the speakers of this dialect live in Sindh, Pakistan, and only a few of them are present in India. An area of part of past Sindh, such as the western regions of Jaisalmer, Thar and Barmer, use a northern dialect called Thali; Bikaner, Bikaneri, and In the West, this dialect is called Dhatak.
Nimadi: The Nimadi language is spoken iIn the Nimar region, which covers parts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Likewise, Nimadi is spoken Khandwa, Burhanpur and parts of Dhara. In addition, writers such as Gaurishankar Sharma and Ramnarayan Upadhyay have received great acclaim for their work in Nimadi.
In conclusion, Marwari is the most popular of all the dialects of the Rajasthani language; therefore it is also the most popular. In addition, over 7.8 million people speak Marwari. Most of these people live in Rajasthan. Also, western Rajasthan is composed of a mixture of Marwari and other dialects, more importantly, it is not surprising that many people think that Marwari and Rajasthan are one and the same; however, Marwari is just one dialect of Rajasthan.
However, a small proportion of Marwari speakers are from Sindh and Nepal. In addition, a mixture of Marwari dialects is found in Jalore, Barmer, Pali and parts of the Nagaur. The Marwari dialect is concentrated in the Jodhpur region of the state of Rajasthan. Marwari also, affects the surrounding districts. West of Jodhpur, the Marwari dialect influences the language in Jaisalmer. In the east, it influences the dialects of Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, and Udaipur. To know more about Rajasthani click here.
Below are a few common words and phrases in Rajasthani.
Hello --> Sat shri akaal (Sikhs) Namaste (Hindus)Assalaam alaikam (Muslims)
Goodbye --> Sat siri akaal (Sikhs, Hindus) Khudaa haafiz (Muslims)
Yes --> Haan ji
No --> Naheen
Please --> Merhebani kerke
Excuse me --> Maf karna
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