Persian, Fārsi فارسي, is a member of the Indo-Iranian division of the Indo-European language group. It is a macro language spoken by about 110 million people around the world, basically in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. The Persian is known by many names. Persian is the maximum commonly used language name in English, from Latin Persian, from Persian to Greek. Farsi is an Arabic form of Parsi originating from Pars, the name of the region where the language developed. The Pars is called Fars in the Arabic language because there is no sound of "p" in Arabic. Dari is the dialect name of the Persian language in Afghanistan as well as Tajik (Tajiks) is the dialect name of the Persian language in Tajikistan.
Persian gained official status in three countries : Iran: Western Persian is spoken as a primary language by around 45 million people in Iran out of a total population of 81 million. Western Persian (New Persian, Parsi, Persian) has got the official language status in Iran (Ethnologue). Additionally, it is spoken in Iraq, Oman, Qatar, and Tajikistan. Standard Persian is the dialect that is spoken in and around Teheran, the capital of Iran. Afghanistan: East Persian (Dari) is the primary language of approximately 7.6 million people in Afghanistan, the Khorasan region in Iran and Pakistan (ethnography). Along with the Pashto language, it is also one of the co-official languages in Afghanistan. Dari is the language of Afghanistan and the mother tongue of several Afghan ethnic groups. Tajikistan: Around 4.5 million people speak Tajiki; Galcha, Tajik, Persian Tajiki, mainly in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, the former Soviet republics of Central Asia (ethnology). Tajiki is spoken in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and this is the official language of Tajikistan.
Most of the surviving Persian literature dates back to the period after the Muslim victory of Iran in the 8th or 8th centuries AD, when the Persians, who wrote in both Arabic and Persian, became scribes and administrators, and also became writers and poets of the religion of Islam. Persian poets such as Saadi, Hafez, Omar Khayyam, and Rumi left a vital mark in the literature of many nations. The word order of Persian is Subject-Object-Verb. Modifiers follow the nouns they modify. Both the Persian and the Dari languages are written in the Persian-Arabic alphabet, which adds some extra letters to render the Persian tone such as "p", "g" etc. which is not characterized in the Arabic alphabet. The alphabet is typically based on consonants and it is written from right to left like Arabic, but Tajik uses a modified Cyrillic script.
Ethnologue records around 20 dialects of the Persian language, which are usually divided into three main jointly comprehensible groups, the interpretation of which as separate languages is primarily based on geopolitical factors. These three groups differ in their sound systems and slightly in their structure and vocabulary. You will not get the difference between the grammar in Persian / Farsi (Western) and Dari (Eastern) languages. The roots of both languages indicate grammatical relations and word structure. Unlike many other Iranian languages, Dari and Farsi have lost most of their nouns and verbs.
New words are formed from nouns, adjectives and verb roots through derivation and composition. In addition, the Persian language contains a large number of loan words from the Arabic language. They are more common in writing than in spoken language. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Farsi, Dari and the Tajik language have influenced their vocabulary in different ways: the words Pashto entered in Dari of Afghanistan, and thousands of Russian words entered the Tajik language in Tajikistan; Farsi borrowed a significant amount of words from French, German, and recently from English, especially in the domain of science and technology.
English has borrowed a number of words from Persian. Persian, in turn, borrowed many of these words from Arabic. Most of them came into English indirectly through other languages, mostly French and Greek. A few of them are listed below: baksheesh [Persian to English borrowed word] bakhshish, literally ‘gift’ bazaar [Persian to English borrowed word] bazar ‘market’ caravan [Persian to English borrowed word] karwan ‘group of desert travelers’ caviar [Persian to English borrowed word] khaviyar, from khaya ‘egg’ + dar ‘bearing’ lac [Persian to English borrowed word] lak ‘resinous substance’ magic [Persian to English borrowed word] Old Persian magush ‘magician’ mummy [Persian to English borrowed word] mumiya, from mum ‘wax’ pilaf [Persian to English borrowed word] pilaw, a rice dish with meat pistachio [Persian to English borrowed word] pista ‘pistachio tree’ shah [Persian to English borrowed word] shah, title of king of Persia scarlet [Persian to English borrowed word] saqirlat, a kind of rich cloth, not necessarily red seersucker [Persian to English borrowed word] shir-o-shakkar ‘striped cloth’, literally ‘milk and sugar’, an allusion to the alternately smooth and puckered surfaces of the stripes; from shir ‘milk’ + ‘hakar ‘sugar’.
Hello (General greeting) [Translation in Persian language] (dorood) درود / (salâm) سلام Peace be with you. [Translation in Persian language] Salām aleikom. Welcome [Translation in Persian language] formal (khosh amadid) خوش آمدید informal - خوش آمدی How are you? [Translation in Persian language] حال شما چطور است؟ (hale shoma chetor ast?) Reply to 'How are you?' [Translation in Persian language] من خوبم ممنون، شما چطوريد؟ (man khubam mamnun, shoma chetorid?) Long time no see [Translation in Persian language] خيلي وقته که ازت خبري نيست (kheili vaghte ke azat khabari nist) What's your name? [Translation in Persian language] اسم شما چیست؟ (esm e shoma chist?) My name is ... [Translation in Persian language] اسم من ... است. (esm e man ... ast) Where are you from? [Translation in Persian language] شما اهل کجا هستيد؟ (shoma ahleh koja hastid?) Pleased to meet you [Translation in Persian language] از ملاقات شما خوش وقتم (az molaghat-e shomâ khosh vaghtam) Good morning (Morning greeting) [Translation in Persian language] (sobh bekheir) صبح بخير Good night [Translation in Persian language] (shab bekheir) شب بخير inf - شب خوش Goodbye (Parting phrases) [Translation in Persian language] (bedrood) بدرود / (khoda hafez) خدا حافظ Good luck! [Translation in Persian language] (movafagh bashed) موفق باشيد / inf - موفق باشی Cheers! Good Health! (Toasts used when drinking) [Translation in Persian language] (salâmati!)سلامتي! Have a nice day [Translation in Persian language] روز خوبي داشته باشيد! (ruze xubi dâšte bâšid!) inf - روز خوبی داشته باشی Have a good journey [Translation in Persian language] (safar be kheir) سفر به خير (be salamat) به سلامت I understand [Translation in Persian language] (motevajjeh am) متوجه ام inf - من میفهمم I don't understand [Translation in Persian language] (nemifahmam) نمي فهمم (motevajjeh nemisham) متوجه نميشم I don't know [Translation in Persian language] (man nemidânam) من نمی دانم Please speak more slowly [Translation in Persian language] ميشه آهسته تر صحبت کنيد؟ (mishe ahesteh tar sohbat konid) Please say that again [Translation in Persian language] مي شه دوباره بگيد؟ (miše dobâre begid?) Excuse me [Translation in Persian language] (bebakhshid) ببخشيد! (mazerat mikham) معذرت ميخوام How much is this? [Translation in Persian language] قيمتش چنده؟ (gheymatesh chande?) Please [Translation in Persian language] (lotfan) لطفا Thank you [Translation in Persian language] ممنونم formal - (mamnūnam) Reply to thank you [Translation in Persian language] خواهش مي كنم (khahesh mikonam) I miss you [Translation in Persian language] دلم برات تنگ شده (delam barat tang shodeh) I love you [Translation in Persian language] عاشقتم (asheghetam) Get well soon [Translation in Persian language] (zud xub šo) زود خوب شو Leave me alone! [Translation in Persian language] من را تنها بگذاريد! (man ra tanha bohzarid!) Help! [Translation in Persian language] (komak!) کمک! Fire! [Translation in Persian language] (âtiš!) آتیش Stop! [Translation in Persian language] (vâysâ!) وایسا Call the police! [Translation in Persian language] پليسو خبر کنيد (poliso xabar konid) Christmas greetings [Translation in Persian language] (kerismas mobārak) كریسمس مبارک New Year greetings [Translation in Persian language] (sale no mobārak) سال نو مبارک Easter greetings [Translation in Persian language] عيد پاک مبارک (eide pak mobārak) Birthday greetings [Translation in Persian language] تولدت مبارک (tavallodet mobārak) Congratulations! [Translation in Persian language] مبارك باشد! / تبریک! One language is never enough [Translation in Persian language] يک زبان کافي نيست (yek zabân kâfi nist).
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