Kashmiri, Keshur or Koshur, belongs to the northwestern group of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the largest of the Dardic languages and the only Dardic language with an early literary tradition. Kashmiri is also known as Kaschemiri, Kacmiri, Cashmiri, Cashmeeree. It is spoken mainly in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. According to the 2001 census, 5.4 million people speak it in India and around 5.6 million worldwide (Ethnologue).
Kashmiri is one of the 22 official languages in India. Although Urdu is the official language of the multicultural state of Jammu and Kashmir, Kashmiri is the majority language used as the language of instruction in primary and secondary schools. Kashmiri is used for various media such as newspapers, radio programs and films. Most Kashmiri speakers are usually fluent in Hindi / Urdu and English languages.
The Kashmir dialects are generally divided into two groups based on geography and the religious and social differences between Hindus and Muslims, and between cities and the Land is influenced by Muslims.
The main Geographical dialects are listed below:
Social or user-defined dialects are influenced by Persian-Arabic Sanskrit that is as below:
Due to its separation from other Indian languages and its geographical proximity to the Perso-Arabic world, Kashmiri has developed some features that distinguish it from other Indian languages, both the phonetic system and the morphological and syntactic structure of the language.
In general, the Kashmiri sound system shares many characteristics with the sound systems of other Indian languages, all of which have a large inventory of vowels and consonants. Kashmiri syllables usually consist of a vowel before and after one or two optional consonants.
Kashmiri is an extremely modified language that uses suffixes and postpositions to mark grammatical affiliations. It is an ergative language, which means that the subjects of the transitive verbs appear in the nominative while the subjects of the intransitive verbs appear in the ergative.
The normal word order in Kashmiri sentences is Subject-Verb-Object. However, it is possible to use other word orders for emphasis.
Kashmiri has more words from Vedic Sanskrit than from other Indian languages. Hindu Kashmiri has borrowed many more words from Sanskrit than other Indian languages. Muslim Kashmiri, on the other hand, has many loan words from Persian and Arabic. Below are some basic cashmere words and phrases.
Kashmiri uses its individual writing system. The traditional Kashmiri script is written in the Sharada script that was established around the 10th century AD. It is presently used for very partial purposes by some categories of Kashmiri society. Today it is an adapted Persian-Arabic alphabet, that is widely used for official and mass communication purposes. The language is known for its rich literary customs, especially poetry, dating back to the 12th century AD. The Kashmiri language and literature have encountered two main influences. The first is from Vedic Sanskrit; later influences came from Persian and Arabic, beginning with Muslim invasions and widespread conversion to Islam.
Below are three main scripts used in Kashmiri language:
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