Chinese languages, the main language group in East Asia, relate to the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese exists in several forms, commonly known as dialects, but scholars often order them as independent languages. It speaks more native Chinese than any other language in the world, and modern Standard Chinese is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Those who speak Chinese are incomprehensible to their speakers. They differ almost to the same extent as modern Romance languages. The main differences between the two are pronunciation and vocabulary; there are some grammatical differences. These languages cover Chinese in the northern, central and western regions of China; Wu in Shanghai, Zhejiang Province and the part of Jiangsu Province south of the Yangtze River; Gan (Kan); Hakka (Kejia); and Xiang; and Cantonese (Yue) in the southeastern part of the country. All Chinese languages have a prevalent literary language (wenyang), written in hieroglyphs and based on a prevalent literary block. In this literary language, there is no uniform standard of pronunciation; a person speaking any language reads texts in accordance with the rules of pronunciation in their language. Until 1917, wenyang was used in most of the texts; Since then, writing in the native language (baihua) has become more and more popular, and the ancient literary language disappears from the daily life of modern China (its use continues in certain literature and academic circles). In the early 1900s, a program was launched to unify the national language based on the Mandarin language; In 1956, a new Latin script called pinyin, based on the pronunciation of the Beijing dialect characters, was adopted as an educational tool to help spread the current literary language. The system was officially prescribed (1979) for use in all diplomatic documents and publications in foreign languages in English-speaking countries. Some experts break the history of the Chinese languages into ancient Chinese, medieval (ancient), medieval (medieval), and modern Chinese. The Proto-Sinitic period is the period of the earliest inscriptions and poetry; most of the loans in Chinese were issued after this time. The writings of Confucius and Mencius mark the beginning of ancient China. Modern knowledge about the sounds of the Chinese language in Ancient China is obtained from the pronunciation dictionary of the ancient language published in 601 AD by the scholar Lu Fayan, and also from the works of the official scholar Sima Guang, published in the 11th century.
The description of varieties of Chinese as languages or dialects is suspect. The Chinese themselves call all forms of speaking Chinese dialects. This observation is reinforced by common cultural and political connections and a common orthography with deep historical roots. The Chinese language has great inner diversity. To date, about 1,500 Chinese-speaking varieties have been recognised. Conversational Chinese is so different that it is difficult for them to understand each other. In fact, the level of intelligibility between the two Chinese dialects is lower than between the two Romance languages. Moreover, the dialects themselves vary greatly. The dialects themselves also affect the level of speech intelligibility. Chinese is generally classified into these main groups of dialects:
In terms of the number of speakers and political significance, Mandarin is the most important dialect in China. Mandarin is the dialect spoken in Beijing. The Beijing dialect has been usual for the usual professional language of China for plenty of centuries. Due to geographical and political reasons, the language was known by different names: in the People's Republic of China it is called pŭtōnghuà; in Taiwan guóyŭ and in Singapore and Malaysia it is called huáyŭ. Although pŭtōnghuà, guóyŭ and huáyŭ are all technically supported by the Běijīng accent, they are different from the dialect spoken in Běijīng. They also differ mainly in pronunciation and vocabulary.
Wú called Shanghai, is in use by about 77 million people living in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and in the regions of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui, including China's largest city, Shanghai.
The Yuè dialect, known as Cantonese, is spoken by 71 million people in Guăndōng Province, Guăngzhōu City (Canton), and Hong Kong, as well as overseas Chinese communities and Chinatowns in Southeast Asia, Europe and the United States. Most of the Chinese loanwords in English come from Cantonese, not Mandarin.
Mĭn dialects, which is also known as Taiwanese, Fukkian, Hokkien, and Amoy, are spoken by about 60 million people in Taiwan, Fujian province and Hăinán Island in the Tonkin Gulf. Mĭn is the mother tongue of most Chinese in Taiwan and Singapore. because they are descendants of a speaking Mĭn from the territory of Fújiàn.
Hakka dialect is spoken by more than 30 million people across southeast China. The people of Hakka were immigrants, and they arrived from northern China. The name Hakka means "guest".
The Jinyo dialect is spoken by 45 million people across a large area of northern China, west of Beijing, including the provinces of Shanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan and Inner Mongolia.
Xian Dialect, also called Hunanese, is used by 36 million people in Hunan, Sichuan, Guangxi and Guangdong regions.
The Gàn dialect is spoken by twenty-one million individuals in Jiangxi, and a few areas Anhui, Hunan, Jiangxi and Fujian territories.
All Chinese dialects are predominantly confining, or logical, meaning that by and large, words have only one grammatical style. Grammatical roles are manifested through word order, particles, prepositions, and speech, rather than by suffixes joined to nouns or verbs, such as in Indo-European languages. Because of the lack of inflexions, Chinese grammar may appear quite simple compared to that of Indo-European languages.
Chinese dialects have most of the vocabulary, although there are some local differences. Foreign words and concepts are used to create new compound words to translate the main concept. Borrowed word transliteration does not work in Chinese because Chinese characters are not suitable for representing foreign sounds and because the pronunciation of characters varies by dialect. Most Chinese words are composed of one or two shapes. Grammatical categories such as number, person, case, verb tense, and aspect are not represented by the elements.
In English, many words are borrowed from Chinese, many of them from the Cantonese dialect, which is spoken in Guangdong Province and Guangzhou City (Cantonese dialect), as well as in Hong Kong and in Chinese communities in the country, abroad and in Chinatowns in Southeast Asia, Europe and the United States. The reason is that many of the Chinese loans have switched to English through the Cantonese dialect.
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