Bengali, also called Bangala, Bangla, Banglabhasa, belongs to the eastern group of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the state language of Bangladesh and one of the officially recognized languages in the constitution of India. Language spoken worldwide after Chinese, Spanish, English, Hindi, Arabic and Portuguese (Ethnologue).
More than 21 million people speak it as a first or second language, with around 10 million speaking Bengali in Bangladesh; approx 8.5 crores in India, mainly in the states of West Bengal, Assam, Jharkhand, Dhanbad, Manbhum, Singhbhum and Santal Parganas; Odisha, Mayar and Bales; Bihar; and the Goalpara and Tripura districts. In addition to Bangladesh and India, Bengali is spoken in Nepal, Pakistan, the Middle East, Europe, the United States, and Canada. The direct forefather of Bengali are Prakrit and Sanskrit. World language in Chinese, Spanish, English, Hindi, Arabic and Portuguese (Ethnologue).
There is general agreement that in the distant past Oriya, Assamese and Bengali formed a single branch from which first Oriya and later Assamese separated. This is one of the reasons why the earliest copies of the Bengali language and literature, the charyapadas (Buddhist mystical songs), are also claimed as their own by the Oriya and Assamese speakers.
According to Bengali linguists Suniti Kumar Chatterjee and Sukumar Sen, Bengali originated in the 10th century AD and is the descendant of Magahi Prakrit through Magahi Apabhramsha. Bengali scholar Muhammad Shahidullah and his followers proposed a competing theory that the language originated in the 7th century CE, and has also developed from oral and written Gouda (also Prakrita or Apabhramsha).
Even if, the Bengali language is an Indo-European language family, it is also influenced by other major language families in South Asia, especially the Dravidian, the Austroasiatic, and Tibeto-Burman families. They all contributed to the Bengali vocabulary and contributed to the language provides some structural forms. In the 1960s and 1970s, Chatterji studied dictionaries from the early 20th century and attributed more than half of Bengali vocabulary to native words. Recent studies have shown that the use of mother tongue and foreign languages is increasing, mainly because Bengali speakers prefer conversational styles.
Spoken Bengali is best known as a range of regional dialects. There are two standard styles of Bengali: Sadhubhasa; it was used in literature in the early 1900s and was the beginning of the 21st cultural form of the Calcutta dialect and the town on the neighbouring Bhagirathi River. The standard Bengali form used in Bangladesh and West Bengal is based on the Midwestern dialect spoken by educated people in Calcutta (formerly Kolkata) in the 19th century. Diglossia is very usual, and many native people can use the standard official Bengali and their own local dialects. Although the differences in the use of Bengali are related to social class, education level and religion, the differences are regional. The four main dialects are called Radha, Pundra or Varendra, Kamrupa and Bangla.
The normal order in Bengali sentences is Subject-Object-Verb. it uses prefixes and suffixes to mark grammatical relations and to make words. Bengali usually uses postpositions, instead of prepositions. Postpositions need that the noun take a particular case.
Bengali vocabulary could be a mixture of native Bengali words, and borrowings from Sanskrit, furthermore as from neighbor languages appreciate Hindi, Assamese, Chinese, Burmese, and a number of other native Austroasiatic languages of Bangladesh. A history of invasions from Persia and also the geographical region resulted in several borrowings from Turkish, Arabic, and Persian. European using brought borrowings from English, Portuguese, French, and Dutch.
Bengali has loaned many words like Hindi, Sanskrit, Arabic, Urdu, Persian, Portuguese, French, Dutch, and English languages. A lot of words borrowings return from Sanskrit, Tamil, and Urdu.
Bengali has a rich literature that dates back to 1000 AD. All literature before the 19th century was in rhyming verse. The modern Bengali writing system developed from an ancient Indian syllabary called Brāhmī. Brahmī is the ancestor of all other Indian scriptures, including Devanāgarī, a writing system associated with Classical Sanskrit, as well as several modern Indo-Aryan languages. It is believed that the Brahmi alphabet was inspired by the Aramaic or Phoenician alphabet. It appeared in India sometime before 500 BC and has been used to write a wide variety of languages, including Sanskrit and Prakrit. The current form of the Bengali script was standardized in 1778 to make printing easier.
Like all scriptures borrowed from Brahmi, Bengali is written from left to right, with hieroglyphs hanging on a horizontal line. There is no distinction between capital and minuscule letters. The Bengali alphabet is written according to a syllable system, in which all consonants have a vowel. This vowel is not always predictable and sometimes not pronounced at all. Special diacritics are used to represent single consonants or vowels.
Below are a few basic words and phrases in Bengali.
Hello--> ei je, nomosker, assalumu alyikum
Excuse me-->māf korben
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